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Harappa civilization and climate change

Context

A recent study has revealed that climate change may be due to the destruction of Harappan civilization. According to the study, due to changes in the pattern of air and rainfall approximately 3000-4500 years ago, the sharp winter monsoon must have started erosion. Firstly the humidified winter monsoon would have converted the urban Harppey society into a rural society, which resulted in the Harappan settlers migrating to the Himalayan plains from the valley. After this, more degradation of the winter monsoon will have to be destroyed due to the destruction of the rural Harappan civilization.

Significant findings

  • This study, titled ‘Neogalecial Climate Enomlims and the Harappan Metamorphosis’, was conducted by an international group of scientists.
  • Scientists collected sediments from the Arabian Sea’s continental margins, recreated the Indian winter monsoon atmosphere of the last 6,000 years and examined the marine fossils and sea DNA.
  • With the change in temperature and weather patterns of the Indus Valley, summer monsoon rains gradually started to decrease due to which it was difficult or impossible to do agricultural work around Harappan cities.
  • According to the scientists, the intensity and feasibility of floods in Indus and its tributaries, which had a bad effect on agriculture, continued to decline. Saraswati’s waterway, Ghaggar-Hakra may have been dry only during that time.
  • The destruction of Harappa civilization would have started only due to such changes in the climate.
  • After the end of these discrepancies related to climate, the decline of the winter monsoon began during 3000-3300 years.

Indus Valley and Monsoon

  • This civilization developed on the alluvial plains of the Indus river and its adjacent areas.
  • According to the study, in the Harappan civilization, very few efforts were made to control the water resources through irrigation through the canals on a large scale near the cities. The Harappans were mainly dependent on rain for winter crops and on rain for summer crops.
  • Although urban Harappan was a summer monsoon after the destruction of civilization, the study also points out that Harappan’s agricultural economy was heavily dependent on water availability.
  • However, long term survival of the North Harappai civilization is still a subject of study.

Evidence

  • The team of researchers was focused on the sediment of sea level near the origin of the Indus river, where the items produced or died due to very low amount of oxygen are preserved well in sediments.
  • The collection of samples or evidence was done on the strategic locations through the kroing (the cutting of the central part of any object), which was chosen using the chop (sound). Charpe is an acoustic sub-bottom profiler that depicts sediment on seaweeds.
  • A cylinder of sediment was removed from the bottom of the ocean with the help of the corning piston. From such samples derived from the scientists, counting them out of small shells of calcium carbonate, they observe how many of them are specific for winter monsoon conditions.

Work areas and boundaries

  • Although this study demonstrates the broad spatial and temporal patterns of diversity in summer and winter rain in Harappai settlements, but also acknowledges that ‘Local Hydrochimmatic Aspects’ have not been fully considered in this.
  • The story of Indus Civilization becomes important today because it presents various vivid examples related to the adverse effects of climate change. The people of Indus reduced civilization were wise and could tackle climate change. But they got displaced and adapted to new circumstances. One big question arises that after all, they gave this sacrifice?

Context

Recently, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal governments withdrew the “general consensus” on the CBI investigation of any case in the state Both the states have withdrawn their consent saying they have no faith in the top investigating agency recently, considering the open disagreement between the top executives in the CBI. Apart from this, there are some allegations that the Central Government is misusing the CBI to target opposition parties.

What is the general agreement ?

  • Unlike the National Investigation Agency (NIA), which is governed by its own NIA Act and whose jurisdiction is the whole country, the CBI is governed by the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act which is mandatory to check the State Government in that state.
  • Consent is of two types – a case-specific consensus and second, general agreement. Although the jurisdiction of the CBI is limited to government departments and employees only, after getting the consent of the state government, it can also investigate matters related to state government employees or violent crime.
  • ‘General consensus’ is usually given to help CBI investigate cases of corruption against the Central Government employees in the respective state. And such consent has been given by almost all the states. If the states have not been agreed by then, it will be necessary to get the consent of the state government before the CBI investigates every case. For example, if the CBI wants to investigate the case of a bribe against the clerk of Western Railway in Mumbai, before registering a case on that clerk, the CBI has to apply for the consent of the Maharashtra government.

What does it mean by withdrawing consent?

  • The withdrawal of consent is that without the case-specific consent of the two states, CBI will not be able to register new cases against any of the Central Government employees or any non-official living in the state.
  • Obviously, it can be said that without entering the state without the permission of the state government, all officers of any CBI officer will be abolished in the form of police officers.

Provision of withdrawal of general consent

  • Delhi Special Police Establishment Act in accordance with section 6, lies in the states (without consent except UT) Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946, Section 5 (which is related to the CBI’s jurisdiction) exercise any rights Can not be done in the state.

Forward path

  • Even after withdrawing the ‘General Consent’, the CBI will be able to investigate the old cases which were recorded at the time when the CBI had consensus on these states. Apart from this, CBI will also be allowed to investigate in such cases which have been registered at some other place in the country but related to the people of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • Without the consent of the state government, whether the agency can be examined in any of the two states in relation to old cases, it is still unclear on this.
  • However, there are legal remedies as well. CBI can always obtain search warrants from the local court in the state and can search in the respective state.
  • If a sudden search is required during the investigation, then Section 166 of CrPc is available, according to which a police officer of a jurisdiction can ask the other jurisdiction officer to search on his behalf.
  • If the first officer feels that the evidence can be harmed by the search of another officer, then according to the above section, the first officer can get himself checked after giving notice to another officer.

Current scenario

  • Withholding the consent, the CBI will not be able to file a case in the jurisdiction of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal only. But CBI can still register a case in Delhi and can continue the investigation of the people in both the states.
  • The order of the Delhi High Court granted on October 11, 2018 had made it clear that if the state has withdrawn the “general consensus” and there has not been a case registered then the CBI can investigate there.
  • This order was given on the issue of corruption in Chhattisgarh (which is agreed on the basis of case every time). The court had ordered that the CBI can investigate in any case without prior consent of the Chhattisgarh government as the case was registered in Delhi.
  • CBI may still run prosecute them can file a case in Delhi, if arresting some of CBI ministers or MPs on the basis of which these cases from Delhi such cases.

Conclusion

This is not the first time that a state government has withdrawn the “general consensus” of the CBI. In the last few years, many states including Sikkim, Nagaland, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka have done this. But if a government could be targeted by the CBI in order to do that ministers of the ruling party in the state or members of the central government and bring back the general agreement that they will remain secure Maybe this is a misconception.

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